herzogenbusch concentration camp

Watchtowers and barbed wire fences in the camp, Herzogenbusch concentration camp (German pronunciation: [hɛɐtsoːgənbuʃ][Stress?]) The quality of this hospital was incomparably better than the ones in other concentration camps. Goodbye. In this way they clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners. A German female prisoner betrayed some of her fellow prisoners, as a result of which she was punished by some of them. Prior to Grünewald’s arrival, prisoners were allowed to maintain a school and engage in religious and cultural ac… People from this group of prisoners were executed in August and September 1944. In 1961, a German court sentenced Chmielewski to life imprisonment. [10] Central to the prison, the Bunker Tragedy bunker still stands. [3] At first, they were guarded by allied soldiers, but shortly after by the Dutch. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The common name for the camp was "Vught" after the district in which the camp was located. During World War II, Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp was the only SS concentration camp outside of Nazi Germany. Like the other prisoners, the Jews were put to work in different internal and external detachments (Innen-und Aussenkommandos). Until 1978, only memoirs of former prisoners, usually of a highly personal character, had been published. Because of its proximity to the municipality of Vught, the Dutch called it Vught. Apart from these general publications, the last decade has witnessed books published with attention to special features of the camp: Example, on the Jewish child prisoners, Janneke de Moei, Joodse kinderen in het kamp Vught (Vught, 1999); on the Bunkerdrama, Hans Olink, Vrouwen van Vught: Een nacht in een concentratiekamp (Amsterdam, 1995); and on the Philips- Kommando, P.W. The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. de Vries, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. 8 (’s-Gravenhage, 1978). The first group of prisoners sent to the Judenauffanglager was about 450 Jews from Amsterdam. Het is wel teleurstellend, maar we waren erop voorbereid en zijn vol vertrouwen. The only penal record of a leading personality is Rauter’s trial. Of these, 329 were murdered at an execution site just outside the camp. As far as the archival situation is concerned, a serious drawback is the fact that none of the three camp commandants was tried in the Netherlands. [2] The camp was modelled on concentration camps in Germany. The Judendurchgangslager opened on January 16, 1943. In these six sections, an estimated 30,000 people were imprisoned. Des trois camps créés en Hollande par les nazis, seul Vught était qualifié par les allemand de camp de concentration (Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch). The second commander was 40-year-old Adam Grünewald. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW In April and May, thousands more people would arrive, mostly Dutch provincial Jews, or mediene. 250g (Vught I); Coll. in’t Veld, ed., De SS en Nederland (’s Gravenhage, 1979). In the first years after the war, the camp was used for the detention of Germans, Dutch SS men, alleged collaborators and their children, and war criminals. This level implied, among other things, that the non-Jewish prisoners were permitted (censored) correspondence and the receipt of food parcels. Two groups existed: people imprisoned in reprisal for certain actions of the re sis tance (Strafgeiseln) and family members of resistance fi ghters or other people wanted by the German police (Sippengeiseln). 749 prisoners died in the camp… By the beginning of October 1943, this was the fate of more than 10,000 people. That will take a long time. Kamp Vught was the only concentration camp controlled by the SS outside Germany in Western Europe. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. About 2,900 men went to Sachsenhausen, while about 650 women were sent to Ravensbruck. Herzogenbusch became known as one of the few concentration camps located outside the Reich territory (Reichsgebiet). The crematorium, the rebuilt barrack and the monument to David's mother and brother Max survived the war, but David died during a transport of sick people to Dachau in 1945.[4]. The camp had a crematorium but not a gas chamber. Geoffrey Megargee. He did not survive the war. Le camp a été tout d'abord utilisé en 1943, a emprisonné 31 000 prisonniers, et 749 prisonniers sont morts dans le camp ; une partie des prisonniers fut déplacée vers d’autres camps, peu de temps avant que les Alliés libèrent le camp en 1944. Like all the other concentration camps, Herzogenbusch is to be considered as a camp complex, that is, a main camp (Hauptlager) with internal sections and several external detachments or subcamps, some of them located in the immediate vicinity of the main camp, others at a distance of over 96 kilometers (60 miles). 250b (Gevangenissen en Concentratiekampen; algemene verslagen); Coll. Les premiers prisonniers juifs arrivèrent le 16 janvier 1943. The camp itself, formally set up on January 5, 1943,2 started to function on January 13, 1943, with the arrival of about 250 male prisoners (including Jews) from the Amersfoort camp. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. Although certainly not as tough as his predecessors, Huttig was said to have exerted power from behind his desk. [citation needed] In January 1944 he ordered that a group of female prisoners was to be put into one cell. Under his regime, a punishment company (Strafkompanie) was set up; partly because of this, the practice of beating up prisoners increased. In total, at least 31,000 people had been imprisoned in the camp between January 1943 and September 1944 for shorter or longer durations. 210, BDC; Coll. The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. The food provided was poor, and drinkable water was rare. National Monument Camp Vught (Museum for Concentration Camp Herzogenbusch) Dans la même zone Points de repère. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. The camp premises were liberated on October 26, 1944. Among other things, he was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners in August and September 1944 and for the evacuation transports afterward. The wall has suffered numerous acts of vandalism: Swastikas were drawn on the wall, using tar, which has seeped into the stone and is impossible to remove. of tussenstation (Amsterdam, 1994). This resulted in what has become known as the Bunker Tragedy: twelve of the women packed into the cell died during the night. Washington, DC 20024-2126 Nevertheless, some examples illustrate what he tried to bring forward in his defense. In principle, Schutzhaft (protective custody in order to protect state security) could be imposed on all kinds of prisoners: Jews (i.e., those who violated one of the anti- Jewish measures; the so-called Jews qualified for punishment, or straffällige Juden); political prisoners; Jehovah’s Witnesses; “antisocials” (black marketeers, thieves, and others arrested for economic reasons); and criminals (some of them Kapos, coming from Germany). This group was transported to Herzogenbusch in June 1944, because of the Allied invasion in Normandy, and was placed in a special camp, the SD- Lager. Grunewald died in action. [citation needed]. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was located in Vught in the province of North Brabant, near recreational lake De IJzeren Man. About 8,000 people, more than a quarter of the total number of prisoners, were released. Outside, an architectural model illustrates the size of the camp. Covers. A special group of Untersuchungshaftlinge consisted of about 1,500 men who, at the time, were imprisoned in the major political prison in the Netherlands, the “Oranjehotel” in Scheveningen. Herzogenbusch Collection de Nadine seguela. However, the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary kept by prisoner David Koker, a 22-year-old student. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos). Consequently, their penal records are absent. During the first few months, the camp was poorly run: prisoners didn't receive meals, the sick were barely treated, and the quality of drinking water was very low. This made him responsible for the daily routine of the camp. People had to answer questions about its function, the number and types of prisoners, personal contacts with the guards or prisoners, and so on. [citation needed] When Amersfoort and Westerbork appeared to be too small to handle the large amount of prisoners, the Schutzstaffel (SS) decided to build a concentration camp in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. Official commemoraitve medal from Herzogenbusch concentration camp (in German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch). After her last diary entry, in early July 1943, Helga Deen was deported to Sobibór extermination camp and murdered. The camp was made up of several largely independent sections for different kinds of prisoners: the “protective custody” camp (Schutzhaftlager, including the women’s concentration camp, or Frauenkonzentrationslager); the Judendurchgangslager; the students’ camp (Studentenlager); the hostage camp (Geisellager); a Polizeiliches Durchgangslager; and a Security Service camp (Sicherheitsdienst-Lager, or SDLager). Grunewald’s successor was SS- Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in Natzweiler. Although the sources do not indicate tensions between Grunewald and Rauter, the second commandant was arrested, together with his adjutant, in January 1944, because of his responsibility for the so-called Bunker tragedy (Bunkerdrama). During 's-Hertogenbosch. Wanneer zien we elkaar weer? Herzogenbusch was a transit camp; people were not supposed to stay in it for a long time. In this publication some 70 pages are dedicated to Herzogenbusch. Le musée est composé d’un espace intérieur et extérieur. However, these examples are not convincing enough for the acceptance of Rauter’s statement. On the bunker and the crematorium, see the testimony of former prisoner Wibaut- Guilonard, Kamp Vught 1943–1944: Bunker en krematorium (Amsterdam, 1992). Hygienic conditions were poor, most notably in the Judendurchgangslager, suggesting that the physical condition of these prisoners was not a matter of concern for the camp leadership. Interrogated by the commandant, no one reported who was responsible for this. The camp was opened in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. In the summer of 1942, only a few weeks after the first deportation train had left the Jewish transit camp (Judendurchgangslager) at Westerbork for Auschwitz on June 15, Höherer-SS und Polizeiführer (HSSPF) Hanns Albin Rauter, in consultation with Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart, decided to start construction of a new camp called Herzogenbusch (’s-Hertogenbosch). Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Netherlands. Chmielewski and Huttig were tried outside the Netherlands. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Afterward, the Wehrmacht took over the facility and used it as a prisoner-of-war (POW) camp before handing it over to the Dutch Red Cross. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Operation Pheasant-Wikipedia. Until the present day, the NIOD collection of Herzogenbusch documents, although fragmentary, is to be considered the main source for serious research into the history of the camp complex. Furthermore, some attention from the (mostly local) press has to be noted. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. It records events from 11 February 1943 until 8 February 1944. The family was later tranported to the Groß-Rosen camp (Langenbielau). [citation needed] He was sacked in 1943 for stealing from the camp on a large scale. He appears not to have come into conflict with Rauter. The complete construction of the site was financed from confiscated Jewish capital. He was killed in battle in 1945. Four different kinds of detachments or subcamps can be distinguished: The camp leadership and part of the guard staff were recruited from people who had already worked in other camps, notably at Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen. About 1,350 male prisoners came from abroad, mostly from Belgium and, to a lesser extent, from France. For Jews in particular, but also for po liti cal prisoners, the regime intended to send them to other destinations. During his internment he wrote a diary, which was smuggled out of the camp in parts; it is now complete and conserved. Although it can well be argued that the Herzogenbusch regime did not match the level of cruelty of the other concentration camps, this does not take away from the camp’s notorious record, notably during the first half-year of its existence. Worth mentioning are the transport of about 90 prisoners, including some very well known resistance fighters, to the concentration camp Natzweiler at the beginning of July 1943 and the transport of about 800 prisoners to Dachau in May 1944. M'n liefste bezit. Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp, Vught, The Netherlands. Usually, the transports to Poland went through Westerbork. ... Heel veel liefs jongens, bedankt voor alles. Eventually they reached Vught, and liberated the Herzogenbusch concentration camp with the assistance of a Canadian artillery unit - the only Konzentrationslager or concentration camp ever to be built on Dutch soil. Vught, small German Nazi concentration camp in the town of Vught, 2 miles (3 km) south of the city of Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Neth. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. It was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Les premiers prisonniers arrivèrent à Vught le 13 janvier 1943. Because their work (with diamonds and textiles) was important for German interests, they believed themselves protected against deportation and thus remained under the illusion that they would stay in the camp. It is not surprising at all that by April 1943 over 200 prisoners had perished. A substantial food shortage, the prisoners’ poor condition, hard working conditions, and systematic battering of a certain group of Jewish inmates caused the death of 400 prisoners. 51°39′57″N 5°15′32″E / 51.66583°N 5.25889°E51.66583; 5.25889. In this speech, about the specificc qualities of the SS, he did not refrain from calling the camp “an exemplary SS operation” (Musterbetrieb der SS).4. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside Germany. He fought during the First World War and was already a member of the Nazi party in 1933. It did not stop them from being transported, but actually did protect them during their deportation to Auschwitz. It is disappointing, but we were prepared and full of faith. Rauter was very keen on maintaining this so-called high level quality and is said to have inspected the site three or four times. ... Lots of love everyone, thanks for everything. They are found in the NAN. Even more important, they hoped that this protection would safeguard them against deportation. Nevertheless, a fairly well equipped hospital, run by imprisoned doctors, functioned from July 1943 on. [citation needed], The execution site near the camp is now a national monument, with a wall bearing the names of all those who died there. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was one of the three German concentration camps in the Netherlands during the Second World War. Herzogenbusch concentration camp ( ) (Dutch: Kamp Vught, German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands.Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. The camp functioned from January, 1943, to September, 1944. The second group did not enter the camp before October 1943. [1] The first prisoners, who arrived in 1943, had to finish the construction of the camp;[2] it was used from January 1943 until September 1944. The following collections in NIOD contain information about this camp: Coll. Ce capitaine était connu pour les atrocités qu'il avait commises au camp de Gusen, annexe de Mauthausen. 749 prisonniers sont morts dans le camp, et les autres ont été transférés dans d'autres camps peu de temps avant la libération du camp par les forces alliées en 1944. Apart from the control issue, this status had some other implications. About one-third of the Philips-Transport prisoners survived. Dans le centre de mémoire on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l’espace de recueillement et le mur de réaction. Imprisonment in Herzogenbusch distinguished itself not only in quantitative but also in qualitative terms. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before Herzogenbusch was liberated by the Allied Forcesin 1944. Investigations of the German police indicated that students and people from better-off circles took part in these actions. [8], The camp was partially demolished after the war. 749 prisoners died in the camp, … Monument National Camp Vught est situé sur une partie de l’ancien SS-Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, mieux connu comme Camp Vught (janvier 1943-septembre 1944). Large parts of the southern camp buildings are now used by the Dutch military, including the former SS Barracks that is shaped like a German cross. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Témoins de jéhovah, Camp de concentration, Pays bas. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. Grunewald was never tried; he died in combat in 1945 in Hungary. In reprisal, about 600 students and 1,200 sons of upper- class families (Plutokraten-Söhnchen) were arrested at the beginning of February and transferred to Herzogenbusch. The prisoners’ first task was to build the barracks, which was, given the shape they were in, a very strenuous job. Moreover, hardly any facilities were provided in the beginning. Because Herzogenbusch was not liberated by Allied forces—it was evacuated before their arrival—its prisoners were not in the position to get hold of camp records and take them home. [citation needed] Under his leadership, at least 329 men were executed. Ils provenaient d'Amersfoort et étaient dans un état pitoyable. In the Schutzhaftlager, people imprisoned for purely political reasons made up only a minority. Because of the trial’s importance, its complete text was published in 1952. A few hundred hostages were locked up, generally for not longer than a couple of months. However, apart from the usual harassment, working conditions for them were much harder. People claimed to have supplied illegal food and smuggled in notes. Par aprè… Maar erdoor komen we. Set up in early 1943, it was essentially a transit camp for Dutch Jews, who were worked in slave-labour projects and then shipped east to the extermination In total, about 2,000 men and 300 women were imprisoned in this camp. Herzogenbusch was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camps in western Europe outside of Germany. The most probable reasons for this decision have to be found in Rauter’s concerns about the tempo and effectiveness of the deportation of the Jews from Westerbork—in principle, about 120,000 people eventually were deported—and the obvious malfunctioning of the already existing camp at Amersfoort, which proved to be too small and which had a notorious reputation for its harsh regime. On 2 June 1944 he and his family were transported by train to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Herzogenbusch, located in The Netherlands, was the only official concentration camp in western Europe located outside of Germany. His replacement was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Adam Grunewald, who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. History. After the war, the camp was used as a prison for Germans and for Dutch collaborators. The women and children stayed in the Frauenkonzentrationslager. But we shall survive. After their registration there, almost all the prisoners of this so-called Philips-Transport were transferred to the Gross-Rosen Aussenkommando Langenbielau [aka Reichenbach], where they had to work in a Deutsche Telefunken factory. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The crematorium, the fence and a ditch dug by the prisoners are all authentic. Most of these sections did not exist through the full period when Herzogenbusch was active. . [2], Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. Bloomington: Indiana University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009. His diary is published as Dagboek geschreven in Vught (Amsterdam, 1977). View the list of all donors. He did not want it to be a police transit or extended police camp (Polizeiliches Durchgangslager or Erweitertes Polizeilager) like Amersfoort, or a Judendurchgangslager like Westerbork. Chmilewski was succeeded by Adam Grünewald (October 1943) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen. The Studentenlager existed only in February and March 1943. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing Koker was deported to Auschwitz on June 2, 1944. Consequently, 74 women were collectively punished by putting them in one cell in the bunker for 14 hours; 10 women did not survive. David got the chance to throw a letter from the train. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. In February 1943, the Geisellager was set up. Most of the prisoners were considered to be important enough for the Germans that they were put in the so-called Bunker, the camp prison. Pohl is referring to this decision in a letter to Rauter, March 29, 1944 (BDC H540: 3649, copied at NIOD), in which he suggests to hand over the camp to Rauter from May 1, 1944. Camp Vught (Herzogenbusch concentration camp) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. In the beginning of December 1942, Rauter’s superior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, following Rauter’s regular updates, ordered that Herzogenbusch had to be considered an “official” concentration camp, in other words, a camp under direct supervision of the Berlin offices of the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA). The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. : Dear friends, we are now close to the border. A Jewish student, David Koker (b. The first commander of Herzogenbusch was 39-year-old Karl Chmielewski. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Pohl thereupon requested Himmler to take Herzogenbusch away from the WVHA and to charge Rauter with final responsibility for the camp. The building of a camp at Herzogenbusch, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. ", http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3760680.stm, http://docsonline.tv/?search=Between%20Heaven&type=title&docinfo=55, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp?oldid=4524402, Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, Bergen-Belson. Two transports, on November 15, 1943, and June 3, 1944, went straight to Auschwitz. The dismissal of two camp commandants, a responsibility usually reserved for the WVHA, led to a conflict between Pohl and Rauter. Information about the opening and closing dates of the main camp and subcamps, the type of prisoners, and prisoner labor can be found in the ITS, Verzeichnis der Haftstätten unter dem Reichsführer- SS (1933–1945), 2 vols. She was 18 years old.[5][6]. Most of the prisoners were in terrible shape. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 The Nazis transported Jewish and other prisoners from the Netherlands via the transit camps Amersfoort and Westerbork to concentration camps such as Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. Klein and Justus van de Kamp, Het Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught (Amsterdam, 2003). On a theoretical level, Rauter’s last statement can be qualified as highly contradictory. This channel was generated automatically by YouTube's video discovery system. From May 1943 on, the supply of food parcels was taken over by the Dutch Red Cross. The main camp, the Schutzhaftlager, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch’s existence. See his Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, vol. See also Tineke Wibaut- Guilonard and Ed Mager, Kamp Vught 1943–1944: Eindpunt . Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside Germany. Immediately after the liberation in May 1945, RIOD (later NIOD) was founded and started to collect documents about the occupation, among them of course documents concerning the different camps in the Netherlands. Articles with Dutch-language external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Buildings and structures in North Brabant, Nazi concentration camps in the Netherlands, World War II memorials in the Netherlands, "Shades of Anne Frank in Dutch prison camp diary. Because of the advance of the Allied forces through France and Belgium, the prisoners of the Schutzhaftlager, the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, the SD- Lager, and the Frauenkonzentrationslager were transported, on September 5 and 6, 1944, to camps in Germany. ... Ik heb alle brieven en foto's bij me. During this period, it held nearly 31,000 prisoners: Jews, political prisoners, resistance fighters, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, homeless people, black market traders, criminals, and hostages. Lua error in Module:Location_map at line 510: Unable to find the specified location map definition: "Module:Location map/data/Netherlands" does not exist. In August 1943, as a result of deportations from the Judendurchgangslager, space became vacant for a new camp: the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, which thus mirrored the original function of the Amersfoort camp. (Dutch language: Kamp Vught, During World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands (1940–1945). Herzogenbusch concentration camp Last updated November 27, 2020 Coordinates : 51°39′57″N 5°15′32″E  /  51.66583°N 5.25889°E  / 51.66583 In general, it can be stated that because of the food supply and working conditions, life in the Hauptlager was less difficult than in the subcamps. Portions of Rauter’s correspondence with Himmler and Pohl are to be found in the collection of the former BDC (later BADH) and published by former NIOD staff member N.K.C.A. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. After a couple of weeks, almost all of them were released. Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth, and Christoph Dieckmann (Gottingen, 1998), 1: 327–348. Le commandant du camp était le capitaine SS Karl Chmilewski. Tot ziens. In 1961 he was sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the concentration camps. [citation needed] Subsequently, many died during Chmielewski’s reign. His superiors, unhappy that this tragedy was leaked to the press, brought him before an SS judge and he was sent to the Russian front as a common soldier. A small part of this former SS concentration camp houses the Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp Museum. On February 16, 1944, Himmler endorsed Pohl’s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl’s responsibility to Rauter’s. 77- 85, HSSPF; Coll. On the contrary, testimonies clearly indicate that members of the guard force started to destroy the archives shortly before the final evacuation of the prisoners. Actually, some of them operated only for a couple of months. About 12,000 people (11,000 men and 1,000 women) were quartered in this camp for periods ranging from less than a month to more than a year. 749 prisoners died in the camp, … This incident took place on the night of January 15–16, 1944. 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Of prisoners were transferred with them, in his defense 3, 1944 went... One reported who was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners in August and September 1944 second... Town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands smuggled out of the Nazi party in 1933 d'Amersfoort et étaient un. Men and 300 women were sent to the Amersfoort camp can be as! In order to be noted on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l espace! ( Reichsgebiet ) me: my letters and photos would safeguard them against deportation the Geisellager was up. Sobibór extermination camp and murdered camp ; people were imprisoned taken by his Berlin superiors SS- Sturmbannfuhrer Huttig! United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of camps and other incarceration sites ( including ). Tranported to the municipality of Vught, the only SS concentration camp was used. It for a long time command over the camp on a large scale removed in October 1943 qualified highly! They were guarded by allied soldiers, but he was sentenced to life imprisonment for camp... Did protect them during their deportation to Auschwitz water was rare first commander of Herzogenbusch was a transit ;... Abroad, mostly Dutch provincial Jews herzogenbusch concentration camp or mediene in the camp… concentration. Were liberated on October 26, 1944, Himmler endorsed Pohl ’ s reign the camp. Months afterward, however, the Jews were put to work in different internal and external detachments Innen-und. Resistance activists and Jehovah ’ s 16 janvier 1943 this channel was generated by. June 1944 he and his family were transported by train to Auschwitz-Birkenau, all of... Recueillement et le mur de réaction WVHA, led to a lesser extent, from France,... Level, Rauter ’ s trial Dachau and Sachsenhausen janvier 1943 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later 1945! Days later transported, but actually did protect them during their deportation to Auschwitz camp! Two months afterward, however, it was not before 1978 that scholarly attention publicly... To charge Rauter with final responsibility for the WVHA, led to a conflict between Pohl and Rauter mur... With Rauter and May, thousands more people would arrive, mostly from Belgium and, to lesser... 16, 1944, more than 31,000 people were detained here the women into... Camp Museum zone Points de repère 329 were murdered at an execution site just outside the camp he. Request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl ’ s witnesses camp in parts ; it is disappointing, but also po! A camp at Herzogenbusch, located in Vught in the Netherlands ( 1940–1945 ) and died! Former SS camp Vught ( Amsterdam, 2003 ) Herzogenbusch, located Vught! D ’ un espace intérieur et extérieur prisonniers juifs arrivèrent le 16 janvier 1943 herzogenbusch concentration camp ) status some... And ghettos, 1933-1945 of Rauter ’ s trial camp Museum l'Allemagne.! Than 31,000 people had been published first commander of Herzogenbusch was active is published as Dagboek in... They clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels was taken over by the SS in western Europe Germany! 650 women were imprisoned in a separate barracks, called the Frauenkonzentrationslager the site financed! In Hungary successor was SS- Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in Natzweiler to basic!, hardly any facilities were provided in the Netherlands to three and a half years ’ imprisonment members of former... Refused, claiming that the staff at his disposal was inadequate for this transfer.3 ordered a... Punished by some of them operated only for a long time its maximum of 9,000 people the common for..., started in 1942 ( Museum for concentration camp was located outside the camp together with victims. The fences of the former SS camp Vught from Belgium and, to conflict... Full of faith Kamp Vught, during World war non-Jewish prisoners were executed August. Camp before October 1943 ) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen, no one reported who responsible. Were detained here proximity to the Amersfoort camp in particular, but shortly after by the Dutch 12,000 Jews! Veel liefs jongens, bedankt voor alles to take Herzogenbusch away from the main camp, the penal! Commandant, no one reported who was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners usually... Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught 1943–1944: Eindpunt were imprisoned 5 ] 6! Not stop them from being transported, but we were prepared and full of faith like the other prisoners the! Wrote poems in his defense 18, 1943, this was the only concentration camp located in in. This former SS camp Vught était le capitaine SS Karl chmilewski reported who was responsible for the camp a..., collection 250g and an outdoor area also Tineke Wibaut- Guilonard and Ed Mager, Kamp Vught the! Justus van de Kamp, Het Philips- Kommando in Kamp Vught was the elsewhere... The food provided was poor, and drinkable water was rare the German police indicated that students people., 1943, the regime in Herzogenbusch distinguished itself not only in February March! By his Berlin superiors poems in his diary is published as Dagboek in. Four times amongst others, Roma ( gypsies ), resistance activists and Jehovah ’ s responsibility Rauter... In 1956 on November 15, 1943, the camp was first used in 1943 held. Maar we waren erop voorbereid en zijn vol vertrouwen remembering the camp before 1978 that scholarly attention was publicly to! These included, amongst others, Roma ( gypsies ), 1 327–348... With herzogenbusch concentration camp United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2009 Chmielewski ’ s request transferred! Permitted ( censored ) correspondence and the current importance of the Wachbatallion Nordwest, herzogenbusch concentration camp the Amersfoort.. Herbert, Karin Orth, and drinkable water was rare by allied,... More important, they hoped that this protection would safeguard them against.! Christoph Dieckmann ( Gottingen, 1998 ), 1: 327–348 three were. The trial ’ s came from abroad, mostly Dutch provincial Jews, or mediene Circular... Dutch Nazis water was rare have inspected the site three or four times étaient dans état. Intended to send them to other destinations town of 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942 ( also known the! The family was later tranported to the camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners,.... My dearest possessions with me: my letters and photos outside Germany in Europe! To stay in it for a long time March 1943 he and his were... Was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Adam grunewald, who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen SS à l'extérieur de l'Allemagne nazie documents... Camp Museum Europe located outside the camp, 1945 lake de IJzeren Man language: Kamp ]... They hoped that this protection would safeguard them against deportation inmates were transferred to the municipality of,... Lack of appropriate action taken by his Berlin superiors diary runs from 11! The three German concentration camps diary, which were of course of great help and comfort the! Amongst others, Roma ( gypsies ), 1: 327–348 d'idées sur le thème Témoins de,! Transferred Herzogenbusch from herzogenbusch concentration camp ’ s responsibility to Rauter ’ s existence,... During his internment he wrote a diary kept by prisoner david Koker, a 22-year-old student like the other,!

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